ETHNARCH

ETHNARCH (Gr. ὲθνάρχος), title given to john hyrcanus ii and his sons by official decree of Julius Caesar in 47 B.C.E. in addition to the office of high priest (Jos., Ant., 14:192ff.). The meaning of ethnarch – head of the people – excluded the title or the rights of a king, and Josephus comments that whereas "Pompey restored the high priesthood to Hyrcanus and permitted him to have the leadership of the nation," he nevertheless "forbade him to wear a diadem" (ibid., 20:244). This distinction is apparent again in the description by Josephus of the appointment of Herod's son Archelaus. Augustus "appointed Archelaus not king indeed, but ethnarch of half of the territory that had been subject to Herod, and promised to reward him with the title of king if he really proved able to act in that capacity" (ibid., 17:317). The title ethnarch was also used to designate the head of the Jewish community at Alexandria. Strabo, quoted by Josephus (ibid., 14:117), describes the Alexandrian ethnarch as one "who governs the people and adjudicates suits and supervises contracts and ordinances, just as if he were the head of a sovereign state." Philo, however, relates that Augustus replaced that ethnarch with a gerousia or Council of Elders (In Flaccum, 74ff.). Certain scholars have attempted to identify the term Σαραμέλ in I Maccabees 14:28 with ethnarch (see asaramel ). The term ethnarch was not confined to Jewish rulers. Thus there is mention of an ethnarch at Damascus under the king Aretas (II Cor. 11:32). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Schuerer, Hist, 107ff.; Schuerer, Gesch, 3 (19094), 76–78; A. Schalit, Koenig Herodes (1969), 224ff.; Baron, Community, index. (Isaiah Gafni)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Ethnarch — (Εθνάρχης) refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group or heterogeneous kingdom. The word is derived from the Greek words for nation and leader ( έθνος and άρχων ).AntiquityThe generic title (not a formal style) of… …   Wikipedia

  • Ethnarch — war ein Herrschertitel in der Antike. Der Begriff leitet sich ab von den griechischen Wörtern ethnós = Volk und archós = Fürst, zusammengesetzt heißt es Volksfürst. Ein Volksfürst war so etwas wie ein Großherzog. Bekanntester Ethnarch war Herodes …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ethnarch — Eth narch, n. [Gr. ?; ? nation + ? leader, commander. See { arch}.] (Gr. Antiq.) The governor of a province or people. Lew Wallace. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Ethnarch — (v. gr.), 1) Beherrscher des Volkes; bes. 2) der von den Römern über die Juden gesetzte Regent, aus den Juden gewählt, z.B. Herodes, Hyrkanos; daher Ethnarchie, Würde u. Gebiet eines Ethnarchos …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Ethnarch — (griech.), Volksherrscher, Titel eines Landesfürsten, der eine fremde Oberhoheit anerkennt, wie der Makkabäer Simon und andre jüdische Regenten; dann auch ein orientalischer Provinzialstatthalter. Ethnarchie, Provinz eines Ethnarchen …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Ethnárch — (grch., d.h. Volksherrscher), Statthalter, Landpfleger; Ethnarchīe, Bezirk eines E., Statthalterschaft …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Ethnarch — Ethnarch, griech., d.h. Volksherrscher, Titel einiger syr. Fürsten, z.B. des jüdischen Archelaus, die unter röm. Oberhoheit standen …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Ethnarch — Ethnạrch   [griechisch »Stammesführer«] der, en/ en, Titel von Stammesfürsten in Gebieten unter römischer Oberhoheit; seit dem 2. Jahrhundert v. Chr. auch Titel des Hohen Priesters in Jerusalem. Unter osmanischer Herrschaft griff die… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • ethnarch — noun the ruler of a province (as in the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire) or certain religious rulers with secular authority the election of Makarios III to archbishop gave him the status of the ethnarch of Cyprus • Hypernyms: ↑ruler, ↑swayer •… …   Useful english dictionary

  • ethnarch — /eth nahrk/, n. the ruler of a people, tribe, or nation. [1635 45; < Gk ethnárches. See ETHNO , ARCH] * * * …   Universalium

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